This work discusses a Bayesian approach to approximating the distribution of parameters governing nonlinear structural systems. Specifically, we use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method for sampling the posterior parameter distributions thus producing both point and interval estimates for parameters. The method is first used to identify both linear and nonlinear parameters in a multiple degree-of-freedom structural systems using free-decay vibrations. The approach is then applied to the problem of identifying the location, size, and depth of delamination in a model composite beam. The influence of additive Gaussian noise on the response data is explored with respect to the quality of the resulting parameter estimates.