In the upper Patuxent Estuary environmental changes in temperature, salinity, and turbidity over a 5-year period are linked to changes in epifaunal production and species distribution. During 1967 a series of monthly panels showed dry weight production averaged 2.8 times greater in a steam electric station heated effluent than in the intake. A downriver shift in epifanual production in 1967 and changes in species abundance was noted and attributed to natural changes in salinity and turbidity and man-induced changes in temperature. ?? 1969 Estuarine Research Federation.