River spanning rock structures are being constructed for water delivery as well as to enable fish passage at barriers and provide or improve the aquatic habitat for endangered fish species. Current design methods are based upon anecdotal information applicable to a narrow range of channel conditions. The complex flow patterns and performance of rock weirs is not well understood. Without accurate understanding of their hydraulics, designers cannot address the failure mechanisms of these structures. Flow characteristics such as jets, near bed velocities, recirculation, eddies, and plunging flow govern scour pool development. These detailed flow patterns can be replicated using a 3D numerical model. Numerical studies inexpensively simulate a large number of cases resulting in an increased range of applicability in order to develop design tools and predictive capability for analysis and design. The analysis and results of the numerical modeling, laboratory modeling, and field data provide a process-based method for understanding how structure geometry affects flow characteristics, scour development, fish passage, water delivery, and overall structure stability. Results of the numerical modeling allow designers to utilize results of the analysis to determine the appropriate geometry for generating desirable flow parameters. The end product of this research will develop tools and guidelines for more robust structure design or retrofits based upon predictable engineering and hydraulic performance criteria. ?? 2009 ASCE.