Eruption dynamics of Hawaiian-style fountains: The case study of episode 1 of the Kilauea Iki 1959 eruption

Bulletin of Volcanology
By: , and 

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Abstract

Hawaiian eruptions are characterized by fountains of gas and ejecta, sustained for hours to days that reach tens to hundreds of meters in height. Quantitative analysis of the pyroclastic products from the 1959 eruption of K??lauea Iki, K??lauea volcano, Hawai'i, provides insights into the processes occurring during typical Hawaiian fountaining activity. This short-lived but powerful eruption contained 17 fountaining episodes and produced a cone and tephra blanket as well as a lava lake that interacted with the vent and fountain during all but the first episode of the eruption, the focus of this paper. Microtextural analysis of Hawaiian fountaining products from this opening episode is used to infer vesiculation processes within the fountain and shallow conduit. Vesicle number densities for all clasts are high (106-107 cm-3). Post-fragmentation expansion of bubbles within the thermally-insulated fountain overprints the pre-fragmentation bubble populations, leading to a reduction in vesicle number density and increase in mean vesicle size. However, early quenched rims of some clasts, with vesicle number densities approaching 107 cm-3, are probably a valid approximation to magma conditions near fragmentation. The extent of clast evolution from low vesicle-to-melt ratio and corresponding high vesicle number density to higher vesicle-to-melt ratio and lower vesicle-number density corresponds to the length of residence time within the fountain. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Additional publication details

Publication type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Title Eruption dynamics of Hawaiian-style fountains: The case study of episode 1 of the Kilauea Iki 1959 eruption
Series title Bulletin of Volcanology
DOI 10.1007/s00445-010-0426-z
Volume 73
Issue 5
Year Published 2011
Language English
Larger Work Type Article
Larger Work Subtype Journal Article
Larger Work Title Bulletin of Volcanology
First page 511
Last page 529