Complex mean circulation over the inner shelf south of Martha's Vineyard revealed by observations and a high-resolution model

Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans
By: , and 



Inner-shelf circulation is governed by the interaction between tides, baroclinic forcing, winds, waves, and frictional losses; the mean circulation ultimately governs exchange between the coast and ocean. In some cases, oscillatory tidal currents interact with bathymetric features to generate a tidally rectified flow. Recent observational and modeling efforts in an overlapping domain centered on the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory (MVCO) provided an opportunity to investigate the spatial and temporal complexity of circulation on the inner shelf. ADCP and surface radar observations revealed a mean circulation pattern that was highly variable in the alongshore and cross-shore directions. Nested modeling incrementally improved representation of the mean circulation as grid resolution increased and indicated tidal rectification as the generation mechanism of a counter-clockwise gyre near the MVCO. The loss of model skill with decreasing resolution is attributed to insufficient representation of the bathymetric gradients (Δh/h), which is important for representing nonlinear interactions between currents and bathymetry. The modeled momentum balance was characterized by large spatial variability of the pressure gradient and horizontal advection terms over short distances, suggesting that observed inner-shelf momentum balances may be confounded. Given the available observational and modeling data, this work defines the spatially variable mean circulation and its formation mechanism—tidal rectification—and illustrates the importance of model resolution for resolving circulation and constituent exchange near the coast. The results of this study have implications for future observational and modeling studies near the MVCO and other inner-shelf locations with alongshore bathymetric variability.

Study Area

Publication type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Title Complex mean circulation over the inner shelf south of Martha's Vineyard revealed by observations and a high-resolution model
Series title Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans
DOI 10.1029/2011JC007035
Volume 116
Issue C10036
Year Published 2011
Language English
Publisher American Geophysical Union (AGU)
Publisher location Washington, D.C.
Contributing office(s) Coastal and Marine Science Center
Description 11 p.
Larger Work Type Article
Larger Work Subtype Journal Article
Larger Work Title Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans
Country United States
State Massachusetts
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