thumbnail

Effects of sediment-associated extractable metals, degree of sediment grain sorting, and dissolved organic carbon upon Cryptosporidium parvum removal and transport within riverbank filtration sediments, Sonoma County, California

Environmental Science & Technology

By:
, , , , , , and
https://doi.org/10.1021/es200544p

Links

Abstract

Oocysts of the protozoan pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum are of particular concern for riverbank filtration (RBF) operations because of their persistence, ubiquity, and resistance to chlorine disinfection. At the Russian River RBF site (Sonoma County, CA), transport of C. parvumoocysts and oocyst-sized (3 μm) carboxylate-modified microspheres through poorly sorted (sorting indices, σ1, up to 3.0) and geochemically heterogeneous sediments collected between 2 and 25 m below land surface (bls) were assessed. Removal was highly sensitive to variations in both the quantity of extractable metals (mainly Fe and Al) and degree of grain sorting. In flow-through columns, there was a log–linear relationship (r2 = 0.82 at p < 0.002) between collision efficiency (α, the probability that colloidal collisions with grain surfaces would result in attachment) and extractable metals, and a linear relationship (r2 = 0.99 at p < 0.002) between α and σ1. Collectively, variability in extractable metals and grain sorting accounted for ∼83% of the variability in α (at p < 0.0002) along the depth profiles. Amendments of 2.2 mg L–1 of Russian River dissolved organic carbon (DOC) reduced α for oocysts by 4–5 fold. The highly reactive hydrophobic organic acid (HPOA) fraction was particularly effective in re-entraining sediment-attached microspheres. However, the transport-enhancing effects of the riverine DOC did not appear to penetrate very deeply into the underlying sediments, judging from high α values (∼1.0) observed for oocysts being advected through unamended sediments collected at ∼2 m bls. This study suggests that in evaluating the efficacy of RBF operations to remove oocysts, it may be necessary to consider not only the geochemical nature and size distribution of the sediment grains, but also the degrees of sediment sorting and the concentration, reactivity, and penetration of the source water DOC.

Additional publication details

Publication type:
Article
Publication Subtype:
Journal Article
Title:
Effects of sediment-associated extractable metals, degree of sediment grain sorting, and dissolved organic carbon upon Cryptosporidium parvum removal and transport within riverbank filtration sediments, Sonoma County, California
Series title:
Environmental Science & Technology
DOI:
10.1021/es200544p
Volume:
45
Issue:
13
Year Published:
2011
Language:
English
Publisher:
American Chemical Society
Contributing office(s):
National Research Program - Central Branch
Description:
9 p.
First page:
5587
Last page:
5595