Feather lead concentrations and207Pb/206Pb ratios reveal lead exposure history of California condors (Gymnogyps californianus)

Environmental Science & Technology
By: , and 



Lead poisoning is a primary factor impeding the survival and recovery of the critically endangered California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus). However, the frequency and magnitude of lead exposure in condors is not well-known in part because most blood lead monitoring occurs biannually, and biannual blood samples capture only ∼10% of a bird’s annual exposure history. We investigated the use of growing feathers from free-flying condors in California to establish a bird’s lead exposure history. We show that lead concentration and stable lead isotopic composition analyses of sequential feather sections and concurrently collected blood samples provided a comprehensive history of lead exposure over the 2−4 month period of feather growth. Feather analyses identified exposure events not evident from blood monitoring efforts, and by fitting an empirically derived timeline to actively growing feathers, we were able to estimate the time frame for specific lead exposure events. Our results demonstrate the utility of using sequentially sampled feathers to reconstruct lead exposure history. Since exposure risk in individuals is one determinant of population health, our findings should increase the understanding of population-level effects from lead poisoning in condors; this information may also be helpful for other avian species potentially impacted by lead poisoning.

Publication type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Title Feather lead concentrations and 207Pb/206Pb ratios reveal lead exposure history of California Condors (Gymnogyps californianus)
Series title Environmental Science & Technology
DOI 10.1021/es903176w
Volume 44
Issue 7
Year Published 2010
Language English
Publisher ACS
Contributing office(s) Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center, Contaminant Biology Program
Description 9 p.
First page 2639
Last page 2647
Country United States
State California
Google Analytic Metrics Metrics page
Additional publication details