Hydrogen isotope ratio, water content and Fe3 +/Fe2 + in coexisting amphibole and biotite phenocrysts in volcanic rocks can provide insight into shallow pre- and syn-eruptive magmatic processes such as vesiculation, and lava drainback with mixing into less devolatilized magma that erupts later in a volcanic sequence. We studied four ~ 35 ka and younger eruption sequences (i.e. Kings Creek, Lassen Peak, Chaos Crags, and 1915) at the Lassen Volcanic Center (LVC), California, where intrusion of crystal-rich silicic magma mushes by mafic magmas is inferred from the varying abundances of mafic magmatic inclusions (MMIs) in the silicic volcanic rocks. Types and relative proportions of reacted and unreacted hydrous phenocryst populations are evaluated with accompanying chemical and H isotope changes. Biotite phenocrysts were more susceptible to rehydration in older vesicular glassy volcanic rocks than coexisting amphibole phenocrysts. Biotite and magnesiohornblende phenocrysts toward the core of the Lassen Peak dome are extensively dehydroxylated and reacted from prolonged exposure to high temperature, low pressure, and higher fO2 conditions from post-emplacement cooling. In silicic volcanic rocks not affected by alteration, biotite phenocrysts are often relatively more dehydroxylated than are magnesiohornblende phenocrysts of similar size; this is likely due to the ca 10 times larger overall bulk H diffusion coefficient in biotite. A simplified model of dehydrogenation in hydrous phenocrysts above reaction closure temperature suggests that eruption and quench of magma ascended to the surface in a few hours is too short a time for substantial H loss from amphibole. In contrast, slowly ascended magma can have extremely dehydrogenated and possibly dehydrated biotite, relatively less dehydrogenated magnesiohornblende and reaction rims on both phases. Eruptive products containing the highest proportions of mottled dehydrogenated crystals could indicate that within a few days prior to eruption, degassed vesiculated magma or lava had drained back down the volcanic conduit and mixed with less devolatilized magma. The vesiculated magma contained hydrous phenocrysts with lattice damage, which locally raised the effective H diffusion coefficient by ca 10–100 × and resulted in increased mineral dehydrogenation. Remobilization of dacite magma mush by relatively more reduced mafic magma appears to have generated further fO2 variations in May 1915 as oxidized magma from shallow levels circulated to depths where dehydrogenation of hydrous phenocrysts began. The δDMagmatic H2O expressed in LVC acid hot springs is likely a mixture derived from devolatilized ascending mafic magmas and crystallizing silicic magma mush.
Additional publication details
Hydrogen isotope investigation of amphibole and biotite phenocrysts in silicic magmas erupted at Lassen Volcanic Center, California