In 2005, 2008, and 2009, eggs were collected for analysis of total thiamine fiom 2, 58, and 30 gravid rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) captured in Edgewater Creek, Owasco Lake, New York, respectively. Mean egg thiamine concentrations (nmollg i standard error) in 2005, 2008, and 2009 were 6.0 ± 1.8, 13.3 ± 0.5, and 14.9 ± 0.2, respectively. Eggs from three more females in 2009 were manually spawned, fertilized, and incubated in the laboratory until they hatched on day 11. The mean thiamine concentration in these eggs was 2.7 ± 0.3 nmol/g. To detect possible thiamine deficiency, on day 12 larvae from each female were divided into two groups and immersed in either static culture water alone or the same water with 5,000 mg/L thiamine for 6 hrs, after which they were held as six individual groups and fed twice daily starting on day 23 until all control larvae had died on day 29. Thiamine treatment significantly (P<0.00l) increased survival of unfed larvae between days 15 and 18 and fed larvae between days 24 and 29 (P<0.05). While most smelt captured in 2008 and 2009 contained adequate egg thiamine, some produced eggs low in thiamine, resulting in increased mortality of their fry, which was reduced by treatment with thiamine.