The effects of proposed impoundments and resulting streamflow regulation on riparian wetlands in the Marmaton River Basin, Missouri, USA were determined using measurements and numerical simulations of wetland water budgets. Calibrated and validated Soil-Plant-Air-Water (SPAW) models were used to simulate daily water depths of four riparian wetlands for Current (model scenario of existing impoundments) and Proposed (model scenario of existing and proposed impoundments) impoundment conditions. The simulated frequency of flooding decreased 19–65% at the wetlands following the additions of proposed impoundments. The reduced flooding resulted in decreases in wetland water depths at all sites during the 10 simulated growing seasons under Proposed conditions with an average duration of continuous water-depth declines of 289 days at the upstream (most regulated) site. Downstream wetlands within the zone of least regulation had an average duration of water level decreases of about 20 days. Decreased water levels under Proposed conditions resulted in a range of 65–365 additional dry days at the study wetlands during the simulated 10-year period of Proposed conditions. The areas of the four wetlands meeting the hydrologic criteria of a formal jurisdictional wetland definition decreased ranging from zero to 31% under Proposed impoundment conditions.