Desmoinesian sandstones from the northern Oklahoma platform and the Anadarko, Arkoma, and Ardmore basins record a complex interaction between mid-Pennsylvanian source-area tectonism and cyclic sedimentation patterns associated with numerous transgressions and regressions. Framework-grain summaries for 50 thin sections from sandstones of the Krebs, Cabaniss, and Marmaton Groups and their surface and subsurface equivalents were subjected to multivariate statistical analyses to establish regional compositional trends for provenance analysis. R-mode cluster and correspondence analyses were used to determine the contributing effect (total variance) of key framework grains. Fragments of monocrystalline and polycrystalline quartz; potassium and plagioclase feldspar; chert; and metamorphic, limestone, and mudstone-sandstone rock fragments contribute most to the variation in the grain population. Q-mode cluster and correspondence analyses were used to identify four petrofacies and establish the range of compositional variation in Desmoinesian sandstones. Petrofacies I is rich in monocrystalline quartz (78-98%); mica and rock fragments are rare. Petrofacies II is also rich in monocrystalline quartz (60-84%) and averages 12% total rock fragments. Petrofacies III and IV are compositionally heterogeneous and contain variable percentages of monocrystalline and polycrystalline quartz, potassium feldspar, mica, chert, and metamorphic and sedimentary rock fragments. Quantitative analyses indicate that Desmoinesian sandstones were derived from sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic source areas. Sandstones of petrofacies I and II occur mostly in the lower Desmoinesian and are widely distributed, although they are most abundant in eastern and central Oklahoma; sandstones of petrofacies III and IV are widely distributed and occur primarily in the middle and upper Desmoinesian. The range of compositional variation and the distribution of petrofacies are related to paleotectonics and basin development, sediment recycling, and varying depositional environments.
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Quantitative petrographic analysis of Desmoinesian sandstones from Oklahoma