Randomly interstratified illite/smectite (I/S) is present in Springeran and Morrowan rocks (Late Mississippian and Early Pennsylvanian) of the Anadarko basin, Oklahoma, at present-day depths <2,750 m, but disappears at depths of 2,750-3,050 m. Only ordered I/S is found in samples below 3,050 m. The work reported here relates the diagenesis of I/S to burial history and oil generation in the Anadarko basin and tests the dependence of the smectite-to-illite reaction on temperature and time. Published temperature models of clay diagenesis suggest that, for Tertiary and Cretaceous rocks, the transition from randomly interstratified I/S to ordered I/S occurs at 100-110°C. Burial reconstructions for the Anadarko basin indicate that maximum temperatures of 100-110°C correspond to present-day burial depths between 2,700 and 3,100 m. These independently calculated depths for the 100-110°C isotherm match the depths at which randomly interstratified I/S is observed to disappear in Morrowan-Springeran rocks. Thus, random I/S disappears at the same temperature in rocks that differ in age by some 300 m.y. Although the extent of the smectite-to-illite reaction is controlled by kinetics, and effects of time are apparent in laboratory experiments and short-lived geologic systems, the results of this study suggest that time plays a secondary role in long-term diagenetic settings.
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Relationship of clay-mineral diagenesis to temperature, age, and hydrocarbon generation–an example from the Anadarko Basin, Oklahoma