Hawaiian fissure fountains: Quantifying vent and shallow conduit geometry, episode 1 of the 1969-1974 Mauna Ulu eruption: Chapter 17

Geophysical Monograph - 17
By: , and 
Edited by: Rebecca CareyValérie CayolMichael P. Poland, and Dominique Weis

Links

Abstract

Geometries of shallow magmatic pathways feeding volcanic eruptions are poorly constrained, yet many key interpretations about eruption dynamics depend on knowledge of these geometries. Direct quantification is difficult because vents typically become blocked with lava at the end of eruptions. Indirect geophysical techniques have shed light on some volcanic conduit geometries, but the scales are too coarse to resolve narrow fissures (widths typically 1 m). Kīlauea's Mauna Ulu eruption, which started with <50 m high Hawaiian fountains along a 4.5 km fissure on 24 May 1969, provides a unique opportunity to measure the detailed geometry of a shallow magmatic pathway, as the western vents remain unobstructed to depths >30 m. Direct measurements at the ground surface were augmented by tripod-mounted lidar measurements to quantify the shallow conduit geometry for three vents at a resolution <4 cm. We define the form of the fissure in terms of aspect ratio, flaring ratio, irregularity, sinuosity, and segmentation and discuss the factors influencing these parameters. In the past, simplified first-order fissure geometries have been used in computational modeling. Our data can provide more accurate conduit shapes for better understanding of shallow fissure fluid dynamics and how it controls eruptive behavior, especially if incorporated into computer models.

Study Area

Additional publication details

Publication type Book chapter
Publication Subtype Book Chapter
Title Hawaiian fissure fountains: Quantifying vent and shallow conduit geometry, episode 1 of the 1969-1974 Mauna Ulu eruption: Chapter 17
Series title Geophysical Monograph
Chapter 17
ISBN 978-1-118-87204-8
DOI 10.1002/9781118872079.ch17
Volume 208
Year Published 2015
Language English
Publisher American Geophysical Union; John Wiley & Sons
Publisher location Washington, D.C.
Contributing office(s) Volcano Science Center
Description 23 p.
Larger Work Type Book
Larger Work Subtype Monograph
Larger Work Title Hawaiian volcanoes: From source to surface
First page 369
Last page 391
Conference Title AGU Chapman Conference
Conference Location Waikoloa, Hawai'i
Conference Date August 20-24, 2012
Country United States
State Hawaii
Other Geospatial Mauna Ulu Volcano
Online Only (Y/N) N
Additional Online Files (Y/N) N