Custom microarray construction and analysis for determining potential biomarkers of subchronic androgen exposure in the Eastern Mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki)
- Erica K. Brockmeier, Fahong Yu, David Moraga Amador, Timothy A. Bargar, and Nancy D. Denslow
The eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) has the potential to become a bioindicator organism of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) due to its androgen-driven secondary sexual characteristics. However, the lack of molecular information on G. holbrooki hinders its use as a bioindicator coupled with biomarker data. While traditional gene-by-gene approaches provide insight for biomarker development, a holistic analysis would provide more rapid and expansive determination of potential biomarkers. The objective of this study was to develop and utilize a mosquitofish microarray to determine potential biomarkers of subchronic androgen exposure. To achieve this objective, two specific aims were developed: 1) Sequence a G. holbrooki cDNA library, and 2) Use microarray analysis to determine genes that are differentially regulated by subchronic androgen exposure in hepatic tissues of 17β-trenbolone (TB) exposed adult female G. holbrooki.
A normalized library of multiple organs of male and female G. holbrooki was prepared and sequenced by the Illumina GA IIx and Roche 454 XLR70. Over 30,000 genes with e-value ≤ 10-4were annotated and 14,758 of these genes were selected for inclusion on the microarray. Hepatic microarray analysis of adult female G. holbrooki exposed to the vehicle control or 1 μg/L of TB (a potent anabolic androgen) revealed 229 genes upregulated and 279 downregulated by TB (one-way ANOVA, p < 0.05, FDR α = 0.05, fold change > 1.5 and < −1.5). Fifteen gene ontology biological processes were enriched by TB exposure (Fisher’s Exact Test, p < 0.05). The expression levels of17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 and zona pellucida glycoprotein 2 were validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) (Student’s t-test, p < 0.05).
Coupling microarray data with phenotypic changes driven by androgen exposure in mosquitofish is key for developing this organism into a bioindicator for EDCs. Future studies using this array will enhance knowledge of the biology and toxicological response of this species. This work provides a foundation of molecular knowledge and tools that can be used to delve further into understanding the biology of G. holbrooki and how this organism can be used as a bioindicator organism for endocrine disrupting pollutants in the environment.
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- Journal Article
- Custom microarray construction and analysis for determining potential biomarkers of subchronic androgen exposure in the Eastern Mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki)
- Series title:
- BMC Genomics
- Year Published:
- BioMed Central
- Contributing office(s):
- Southeast Ecological Science Center
- art660: 11 p.
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