The massive Paleocene oil sands of the Balder Field are overlain by several thinly bedded Eocene sand-prone packages of variable facies and reservoir quality. Although these sands have been penetrated by numerous exploration and development wells, uncertainty remains as to their extent, distribution, and ultimate effect on reservoir performance. The section is geologically complex (thin beds, injected sands, shale clasts and laminae, and faulting), and also contains a field-wide primary gas cap. With a depletion plan involving both gas and water injection, geologic/reservoir characterization of the Eocene is critical for prudent resource management during depletion. With this goal, resistivity modeling and core-based thin bed reservoir description from the first phase of development drilling have been integrated with seismic attribute mapping. Detailed core description, core permeability and grain size distribution data delineate six facies and help in distinguishing laterally continuous massive and laminated sands from potentially non-connected injection sands and non-reservoir quality siltstones and tuffs. Volumetric assessment of the thin sand resource has been enhanced by I-D forward modeling of induction log response using a commercial resistivity modeling program, R,BAN. After defining beds and facies with core and high resolution log data, the AHF60 array induction curve response was approximated using the 6FF40 response. Because many of the beds were thinner than 6FF40 resolution, the modeling is considered to provide a lower bound on R,. However, for most beds this model-based R, is significantly higher than that provided by one-foot vertical resolution shallow resistivity data, and is thought to be the best available estimate of true formation resistivity. Sensitivities in STOOIP were assessed with multiple R, earth models which can later be tested against production results. In addition, water saturation height functions, developed in vertical wells and thick beds, can be validated in deviated wells with thin beds. Sand thickness models constrained by this logand core-based petrophysical analysis were used to build impedance seismic synthetic sections from which seismic attributes could be extracted and calibrated. The model-based attribute calibration was then applied to the seismic impedance 3-D cube permitting sand thickness to be mapped and reservoir geology to be modeled with significantly more detail than previously possible. These results will guide the field''s reservoir management and assist in the delineation of new targets.
Additional publication details
Applications of resistivity modeling in reservoir development: examples from Balder Field, Norwegian North Sea