Eleven equations for calculating evaporation were compared with evaporation determined by the energy budget method for Williams Lake, Minnesota. Data were obtained from instruments on a raft, on land near the lake, and at a weather station 60 km south of the lake. The comparisons were based on monthly values for the open-water periods of 5 years, a total of 22 months. A modified DeBruin-Keijman, Priestley-Taylor, and a modified Penman equation resulted in monthly evaporation values that agreed most closely with energy budget values. To use these equations, net radiation, air temperature, wind speed, and relative humidity need to be measured near the lake. In addition, thermal surveys need to be made to determine change in heat stored in the lake. If data from distant climate stations are the only data available, and they include solar radiation, the Jensen-Haise and Makkink equations resulted in monthly evaporation values that agreed reasonably well with energy budget values.
|Publication Subtype||Journal Article|
|Title||Evaluation of 11 equations for determining evaporation for a small lake in the North Central United States|
|Series title||Water Resources Research|
|Publisher||American Geophysical Union|
|Contributing office(s)||North Dakota Water Science Center, Water Resources Division, Dakota Water Science Center|
|Other Geospatial||Williams Lake|
|Google Analytic Metrics||Metrics page|