Experimental design and quality assurance: in situ fluorescence instrumentation
Both instrument design and capabilities of fluorescence spectroscopy have greatly advanced over the last several decades. Advancements include solid-state excitation sources, integration of fiber optic technology, highly sensitive multichannel detectors, rapid-scan monochromators, sensitive spectral correction techniques, and improve data manipulation software (Christian et al., 1981, Lochmuller and Saavedra, 1986; Cabniss and Shuman, 1987; Lakowicz, 2006; Hudson et al., 2007). The cumulative effect of these improvements have pushed the limits and expanded the application of fluorescence techniques to numerous scientific research fields. One of the more powerful advancements is the ability to obtain in situ fluorescence measurements of natural waters (Moore, 1994).
The development of submersible fluorescence instruments has been made possible by component miniaturization and power reduction including advances in light sources technologies (light-emitting diodes, xenon lamps, ultraviolet [UV] lasers) and the compatible integration of new optical instruments with various sampling platforms (Twardowski et at., 2005 and references therein). The development of robust field sensors skirt the need for cumbersome and or time-consuming filtration techniques, the potential artifacts associated with sample storage, and coarse sampling designs by increasing spatiotemporal resolution (Chen, 1999; Robinson and Glenn, 1999). The ability to obtain rapid, high-quality, highly sensitive measurements over steep gradients has revolutionized investigations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) optical properties, thereby enabling researchers to address novel biogeochemical questions regarding colored or chromophoric DOM (CDOM).
This chapter is dedicated to the origin, design, calibration, and use of in situ field fluorometers. It will serve as a review of considerations to be accounted for during the operation of fluorescence field sensors and call attention to areas of concern when making this type of measurement. Attention is also given to ways in which in-water fluorescence measurements have revolutionized biogeochemical studies of CDOM and how those measurements can be used in conjunction with remotely sense satellite data to understand better the biogeochemistry of DOM in aquatic environments.
Additional publication details
|Publication type||Book chapter|
|Publication Subtype||Book Chapter|
|Title||Experimental design and quality assurance: in situ fluorescence instrumentation|
|Publisher||Cambridge University Press|
|Publisher location||New York, NY|
|Contributing office(s)||California Water Science Center|
|Larger Work Type||Book|
|Larger Work Subtype||Other Government Series|
|Larger Work Title||Aquatic organic matter fluorescence|