Genetic studies of freshwater turtle and tortoises: a review of the past 70 years

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Abstract

Powerful molecular techniques have been developed over many decades for resolving genetic relationships, population genetic structure, patterns of gene flow, mating systems, and the amount of genetic diversity in animals. Genetic studies of turtles were among the earliest and the rapid application of new genetic tools and analytical techniques is still apparent in the literature on turtles. At present, of the 198 freshwater turtles and tortoises that are listed as not extinct by the IUCN Red List, 69 species worldwide are listed as endangered or critically endangered, and an additional 56 species are listed as vulnerable. Of the ca. 300 species of the freshwater turtles and tortoises in the world, ca. 42% are considered to be facing a high risk extinction, and there is a need to focus intense conservation attention on these species. This includes a need to (i) assess our current state of knowledge regarding the application of genetics to studies of freshwater turtles and tortoises and (ii) determine future research directions. Here, we review all available published studies for the past 70 years that were written in English and used genetic markers (e.g. karyotypes, allozymes, DNA loci) to better understand the biology of freshwater turtles and tortoises. We review the types of studies conducted in relation to the species studied and quantify the countries where the studies were performed. We rack the changing use of different genetic markers through time and report on studies focused on aspects of molecular evolution within turtle genomes. We address the usefulness of particular genetic markers to answer phylogenetic questions and present data comparing population genetic structure and mating systems across species. We draw specific attention to whether authors have considered issues to turtle conservation in their research or provided new insights that have been translated into recommendations for conservation management.

Additional publication details

Publication type Conference Paper
Publication Subtype Conference Paper
Title Genetic studies of freshwater turtle and tortoises: a review of the past 70 years
Volume 4
Year Published 2007
Language English
Publisher Chelonian Research Foundation
Publisher location Lunenburg, MA
Contributing office(s) Southeast Ecological Science Center
Description 32 p.
Larger Work Type Book
Larger Work Subtype Monograph
Larger Work Title Defining turtle diversity: proceedings of a workshop on genetics, ethics, and taxonomy of freshwater turtles and tortoises, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 8-12 August 2005
First page 15
Last page 46
Conference Title Workshop on genetics, ethics, and taxonomy of freshwater turtles and tortoises
Conference Location Cambridge, MA
Conference Date August 8-12 2005
Online Only (Y/N) N
Additional Online Files (Y/N) N