Enhanced submarine ground water discharge form mixing of pore water and estuarine water

Ground Water
By: , and 



Submarine ground water discharge is suggested to be an important pathway for contaminants from continents to coastal zones, but its significance depends on the volume of water and concentrations of contaminants that originate in continental aquifers. Ground water discharge to the Banana River Lagoon, Florida, was estimated by analyzing the temporal and spatial variations of Cl concentration profiles in the upper 230 cm of pore waters and was measured directly by seepage meters. Total submarine ground water discharge consists of slow discharge at depths > ∼70 cm below seafloor (cmbsf) of largely marine water combined with rapid discharge of mixed pore water and estuarine water above ∼70 cmbsf. Cl profiles indicate average linear velocities of ∼0.014 cm/d at depths > ∼70 cmbsf. In contrast, seepage meters indicate water discharges across the sediment-water interface at rates between 3.6 and 6.9 cm/d. The discrepancy appears to be caused by mixing in the shallow sediment, which may result from a combination of bioirrigation, wave and tidal pumping, and convection. Wave and tidal pumping and convection would be minor because the tidal range is small, the short fetch of the lagoon limits wave heights, and large density contacts are lacking between lagoon and pore water. Mixing occurs to ∼70 cmbsf, which represents depths greater than previously reported. Mixing of oxygenated water to these depths could be important for remineralization of organic matter.

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Additional publication details

Publication type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Title Enhanced submarine ground water discharge form mixing of pore water and estuarine water
Series title Ground Water
DOI 10.1111/j.1745-6584.2004.tb02639.x
Volume 42
Issue 7
Year Published 2004
Language English
Publisher Wiley
Contributing office(s) Coastal and Marine Geology Program
Description 11 p.
Larger Work Type Article
Larger Work Subtype Journal Article
Larger Work Title Ground Water
First page 1000
Last page 1010
Country United States
State Florida
Other Geospatial Banana River Lagoon
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