Fire can be both an ecosystem stressor (Chapter 2) and a critical ecosystem process, depending on when, where, and under what conditions it occurs on the southern Nevada landscape. Fire can also pose hazards to human life and property, particularly in the wildland/urban interface (WUI). The challenge faced by land managers is to prevent fires from occurring where they are likely to threaten ecosystem integrity or human developments, while allowing fires to occur where they will provide ecosystem benefits. The Southern Nevada Agency Partnership (SNAP) Science and Research Strategy summarizes this desired outcome with Sub-goal 1.1, which is to manage wildland fire to sustain Southern Nevada’s ecosystems (table 1.3; Chapter 1). This chapter provides information that will help land managers develop strategies to achieve this goal. It begins with a background section on fire history, spatial and temporal patterns of fire, and fire effects for the major ecosystem types of southern Nevada, (table 1.1; Chapter 1). Potential fire management actions are then discussed, the overall implications of the information to fire management are summarized, and the major knowledge gaps are described.