Establishment, sex structure and breeding system of an exotic riparian willow, Salix X rubens

American Midland Naturalist
By: , and 



Several Eurasian tree willows (Salix spp.) have become naturalized in riparian areas outside of their native range. Salix x rubens is a Eurasian willow that is conspicuous along streams in the high plains of Colorado. We examined establishment of seedlings and cuttings, the sex structure and the breeding system of S. x rubens. An experiment was conducted on establishment and growth of seedlings and cuttings under a range of hydrologic conditions. Seedlings became established under all conditions except when flooded, although many fewer seedlings became established where soil surface conditions were relatively dry. Cuttings became established under all experimental conditions, but most frequently where soil moisture was highest. The sex structure of S. x rubens was determined along several streams in the Colorado high plains. Of 2175 trees surveyed, >99% (2172) were female. Salix x rubens produce viable seed apparently as a result of hybridization with another Eurasian willow, S. alba var. vitellina. Salix x rubens often reproduces vegetatively, which, combined with low hybrid seedling survival in the field, may explain the unusual sex structure. Salix x rubens will likely continue to spread vegetatively in high plains riparian areas, and the potential for spread through hybridization could increase if males of compatible Salix spp. are planted near extant S. x rubens.
Publication type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Title Establishment, sex structure and breeding system of an exotic riparian willow, Salix X rubens
Series title American Midland Naturalist
DOI 10.2307/2426210
Volume 132
Issue 1
Year Published 1994
Language English
Publisher University of Notre Dame
Publisher location Notre Dame, IN
Description 14 p.
Larger Work Type Article
Larger Work Subtype Journal Article
Larger Work Title American Midland Naturalist
First page 159
Last page 172
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