Experiments of plant growth responses to different CO2 concentrations and temperatures were conducted in growth chambers to explore the interactive effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment and temperature on the growth and dry matter allocation of dioecious Hydrilla [Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle]. Hydrilla plants were exposed to two atmospheric CO2 concentrations (350 and 700 ppm) and three temperatures (15, 25 and 32°C) under a 12-hr photoperiod for about 2 months. The plant growth analysis showed that elevated CO2 appeared to enhance the growth of Hydrilla, and that the percentage of the enhancement is strongly temperature-dependent. Maximum biomass production was achieved at 700 ppm CO2 and 32°C. At 15°C, the total dry matter production was increased about 27% by doubling CO2, due to a 26% enhancement of leaf biomass, a 34% enhancement of stem biomass and 16% enhancement of root biomass. At 25°C, the dry matter production was increased about 46% by doubling CO2, due to a 29% enhancement of leaf biomass, a 27% enhancement of stem biomass and 40% enhancement of root biomass. At 32°C, however, the percentage of the enhancement of total dry matter production by doubling CO2 was only about 7%. The dry matter allocation among different plant parts was influenced by temperature but not by elevated CO2 concentration.