Mapping nuclear craters on Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands

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Abstract

In 1984, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a detailed geologic analysis of two nuclear test craters at Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands, on behalf of the Defense Nuclear Agency. A multidisciplinary task force mapped the morphology, surface character, and subsurface structure of two craters, OAK and KOA. The field mapping techniques include echo sounding, sidescan sonar imaging, single-channel and multichannel seismic reflection profiling, a seismic refraction survey, and scuba and submersible operations. All operations had to be navigated precisely and correlatable with subsequent drilling and sampling operations.

 Mapping with a high degree of precision at scales as large as 1:1500 required corrections that often are not considered in marine mapping. Corrections were applied to the bathymetric data for location of the echo- sounding transducer relative to the navigation transponder on the ship and for transducer depth, speed of sound, and tidal variations. Sidescan sonar, single-channel seismic reflection, and scuba and submersible data were correlated in depth and map position with the bathymetric data to provide a precise, internally consistent data set. The multichannel and refraction surveys were conducted independently but compared well with bathymetry. Examples drawn from processing the bathymetric, sidescan sonar, and single- channel reflection data help illustrate problems and procedures in precision mapping.

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Additional publication details

Publication type Conference Paper
Publication Subtype Conference Paper
Title Mapping nuclear craters on Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands
DOI 10.1007/978-94-009-3885-4_22
Year Published 1986
Language English
Publisher Springer
Contributing office(s) Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center
Description 10 p.
Larger Work Type Book
Larger Work Subtype Conference publication
Larger Work Title Proceedings International Symposium on Marine Positioning
First page 249
Last page 258
Conference Title Marine Positioning International Symposium: Positioning the Future
Conference Location Reston, VA
Conference Date October 14-17, 1986
Country Marshall Islands
Other Geospatial Enewetak Atoll
Online Only (Y/N) N
Additional Online Files (Y/N) N
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