Monitoring and modeling wetland chloride concentrations in relationship to oil and gas development

Journal of Environmental Management
By:  and 



Extraction of oil and gas via unconventional methods is becoming an important aspect of energy production worldwide. Studying the effects of this development in countries where these technologies are being widely used may provide other countries, where development may be proposed, with some insight in terms of concerns associated with development. A fairly recent expansion of unconventional oil and gas development in North America provides such an opportunity. Rapid increases in energy development in North America have caught the attention of managers and scientists as a potential stressor for wildlife and their habitats. Of particular concern in the Northern Great Plains of the U.S. is the potential for chloride-rich produced water associated with unconventional oil and gas development to alter the water chemistry of wetlands. We describe a landscape scale modeling approach designed to examine the relationship between potential chloride contamination in wetlands and patterns of oil and gas development. We used a spatial Bayesian hierarchical modeling approach to assess multiple models explaining chloride concentrations in wetlands. These models included effects related to oil and gas wells (e.g. age of wells, number of wells) and surficial geology (e.g. glacial till, outwash). We found that the model containing the number of wells and the surficial geology surrounding a wetland best explained variation in chloride concentrations. Our spatial predictions showed regions of localized high chloride concentrations. Given the spatiotemporal variability of regional wetland water chemistry, we do not regard our results as predictions of contamination, but rather as a way to identify locations that may require more intensive sampling or further investigation. We suggest that an approach like the one outlined here could easily be extended to more of an adaptive monitoring approach to answer questions about chloride contamination risk that are of interest to managers.

Study Area

Publication type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Title Monitoring and modeling wetland chloride concentrations in relationship to oil and gas development
Series title Journal of Environmental Management
DOI 10.1016/j.jenvman.2014.10.028
Volume 150
Year Published 2015
Language English
Publisher Elsevier
Contributing office(s) Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center
Description 8 p.
First page 120
Last page 127
Country United States
State Montana, North Dakota
County Bottineau County, Burke County, Daniels County, Divide County, McHenry County, Mountrail County, Renville County, Roosevelt County, Sheridan County (MO), Sheridan County (ND), Ward County, Williams County
Other Geospatial Bakken Formation, Williston Basin
Online Only (Y/N) N
Additional Online Files (Y/N) N
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