Rhinoceros sondaicus (Perissodactyla: Rhinocerotidae)

Mammalian Species
By:  and 



Rhinoceros sondaicus Desmarest, 1822, commonly called the Javan rhinoceros or lesser one-horned rhinoceros, is the most critically endangered large mammal on Earth with only 40-50 extant individuals in 2 disjunct and distant populations: most in Ujung Kulon, West Java, and only 2-6 (optimistically) in Cat Loc, Vietnam. R. sondaicus is polytypic with 3 recognized subspecies: R. s. sondaicus (currently West Java), R. s. inermis (formerly Sunderbunds; no doubt extinct), and R s. annamiticus (Vietnam; perhaps now extinct). R. sondaicus is a browser and currently occupies lowland semievergreen secondary forests in Ja va and marginal habitat in Vietnam; it was once more widespread and abundant, likely using a greater variety of habitats. R sondaicus has a very spotty history of husbandry, and no individuals are currently in captivity. Conservation focuses on protection from poaching and habitat loss. Following decades-long discussion of captive breeding and establishment of a 3rd wild population, conservation and governmental agencies appear closer to taking such seriously needed action on the latter.

Additional publication details

Publication type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Title Rhinoceros sondaicus (Perissodactyla: Rhinocerotidae)
Series title Mammalian Species
DOI 10.1644/887.1
Volume 43
Issue 887
Year Published 2011
Language English
Contributing office(s) Coop Res Unit Atlanta
Description 19 p.
First page 190
Last page 208
Online Only (Y/N) N
Additional Online Files (Y/N) N