Native plant recovery in study plots after fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) control on Santa Cruz Island

Monographs of the Western North American Naturalist
By: , and 



Santa Cruz Island is the largest of the California Channel Islands and supports a diverse and unique flora which includes 9 federally listed species. Sheep, cattle, and pigs, introduced to the island in the mid-1800s, disturbed the soil, browsed native vegetation, and facilitated the spread of exotic invasive plants. Recent removal of introduced herbivores on the island led to the release of invasive fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), which expanded to become the dominant vegetation in some areas and has impeded the recovery of some native plant communities. In 2007, Channel Islands National Park initiated a program to control fennel using triclopyr on the eastern 10% of the island. We established replicate paired plots (seeded and nonseeded) at Scorpion Anchorage and Smugglers Cove, where notably dense fennel infestations (>10% cover) occurred, to evaluate the effectiveness of native seed augmentation following fennel removal. Five years after fennel removal, vegetative cover increased as litter and bare ground cover decreased significantly (P < 0.0001) on both plot types. Vegetation cover of both native and other (nonfennel) exotic species increased at Scorpion Anchorage in both seeded and nonseeded plots. At Smugglers Cove, exotic cover decreased significantly (P = 0.0001) as native cover comprised of Eriogonum arborescensand Leptosyne gigantea increased significantly (P < 0.0001) in seeded plots only. Nonseeded plots at Smugglers Cove were dominated by exotic annual grasses, primarily Avena barbata. The data indicate that seeding with appropriate native seed is a critical step in restoration following fennel control in areas where the native seed bank is depauperate.

Additional publication details

Publication type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Title Native plant recovery in study plots after fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) control on Santa Cruz Island
Series title Monographs of the Western North American Naturalist
Volume 7
Year Published 2014
Language English
Publisher Monte L. Bean Life Science Museum
Publisher location Provo, UT
Contributing office(s) Fort Collins Science Center
Description 12 p.
First page 465
Last page 476
Online Only (Y/N) N
Additional Online Files (Y/N) N
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