Coastal deposits of heavy mineral sands; Global significance and US resources

Mining Engineering
By: , and 

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Abstract

Ancient and modern coastal deposits of heavy mineral sands (HMS) are the principal source of several heavy industrial minerals, with mining and processing operations on every continent except Antarctica. For example, HMS deposits are the main source of titanium feedstock for the titanium dioxide (TiO2) pigments industry, obtained from the minerals ilmenite (Fe2+TiO3), rutile (TiO2) and leucoxene (an alteration product of ilmenite). HMS deposits are also the principal source of zircon (ZrSiO4), from which zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) is obtained for uses mostly in refractory products. Sometimes monazite [(Ce,La,Nd,Th)PO4] is recovered as a byproduct mineral, sought for its rare earth elements and thorium (Ault and others, 2016; Sengupta and Van Gosen, 2016; Van Gosen and Tulsidas, 2016). 

Additional publication details

Publication type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Title Coastal deposits of heavy mineral sands; Global significance and US resources
Series title Mining Engineering
Volume 68
Issue 10
Year Published 2016
Language English
Publisher SME
Contributing office(s) Central Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center
Description 8 p.
First page 36
Last page 43