Acute toxicity and hazard assessment of Rodeo®, X-77 Spreader®, and Chem-Trol® to aquatic invertebrates

Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
By: , and 



The herbicide Rodeo® provides waterfowl managers with an effective chemical tool for creating open water habitats in wetlands if its use does not adversely affect native invertebrate communities. The survival of caged Chironomus spp. (midge), Hyalella azteca (amphipod),Stagnicola elodes (pond snail), and Nephelopsis obscura (leech) was assessed in prairie pothole wetlands treated by air with a tank mixture of Rodeo®, the surfactant X-77 Spreader®, and the drift retardant Chem-Trol® at a rate recommended for controlling cattails. Laboratory studies were then conducted to determine the acute toxicities of Rodeo®, X-77 Spreader®, and Chem-Trol®, individually and in simulated tank mixtures, to the same invertebrates and to Daphnia magna in reconstituted water representative of these wetlands. There was no difference in the survival of caged invertebrates between treated and reference wetlands after 21 days. Based on nominal concentrations of the formulations, X-77 Spreader® (LC50s=2.0–14.1 mg/L) was about 83–136 times more toxic than Rodeo® (LC50s=218–1216 mg/L) to aquatic invertebrates. Chem-Trol® killed ≤10% of the animals at 10,000 mg/L and ≤50% of the animals at 28,000 mg/L. Daphnia magna were more sensitive than the other species to X-77 Spreader®, Rodeo®, and the simulated Rodeo® tank mixture (RTM). The joint toxic action of the RTM was additive for amphipods and midges, greater than additive for leeches, and was less than additive for daphnids. X-77 Spreader® was the major toxic component in the RTM. Binary mixtures of X-77 Spreader®, Rodeo®, and Chem-Trol® at tank mixture and equitoxic ratios also showed additive toxicity to amphipods. The use of Rodeo® (applied as a tank mixture with X-77 Spreader® and Chem-Trol®) as a management tool in wetlands does not pose an acute hazard to native aquatic invertebrates because the concentrations of Rodeo®, X-77 Spreader®, and Chem-Trol® found to be acutely toxic to these invertebrates were much higher than their expected or measured concentrations in water from wetlands treated with the RTM.

Additional publication details

Publication type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Title Acute toxicity and hazard assessment of Rodeo®, X-77 Spreader®, and Chem-Trol® to aquatic invertebrates
Series title Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
DOI 10.1007/BF00213176
Volume 27
Issue 3
Year Published 1994
Language English
Publisher Springer
Contributing office(s) Columbia Environmental Research Center
Description 8 p.
First page 392
Last page 399
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