The vulnerable freckled crayfish, Cambarus maculatus Hobbs and Pflieger, 1988, is endemic to only one drainage in eastern Missouri, USA, which is impacted by heavy metals mining and adjacent to a rapidly-expanding urban area. We studied populations of C. maculatus in two small streams for 25 months to describe annual reproductive cycles, and gather information about fecundity, sex ratio, size at maturity, size-class structure, and growth, capturing a monthly average of more than 50 individuals from each of the two study populations. Information about the density of the species at supplemental sampling streams was also obtained. The species exhibited traits consistent with a K-strategist life history; long-lived, slow-growing, with fewer but larger eggs than sympatric crayfish species. Breeding season occurred in mid- to late autumn, potentially extending into early winter. Egg brooding occurred primarily in May. Young of year were first observed in June. We estimated that these populations contained four to six size-classes, observed smaller individuals grew faster than larger individuals, and most became sexually mature in their second year of life. Densities of C. maculatus were low relative to several sympatric species of Orconectes Cope, 1872. Life history information presented herein will be important for anticipated future conservation efforts.