Arsenic and selenium in microbial metabolism

Annual Review of Microbiology
By: , and 

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Abstract

Arsenic and selenium are readily metabolized by prokaryotes, participating in a full range of metabolic functions including assimilation, methylation, detoxification, and anaerobic respiration. Arsenic speciation and mobility is affected by microbes through oxidation/reduction reactions as part of resistance and respiratory processes. A robust arsenic cycle has been demonstrated in diverse environments. Respiratory arsenate reductases, arsenic methyltransferases, and new components in arsenic resistance have been recently described. The requirement for selenium stems primarily from its incorporation into selenocysteine and its function in selenoenzymes. Selenium oxyanions can serve as an electron acceptor in anaerobic respiration, forming distinct nanoparticles of elemental selenium that may be enriched in (76)Se. The biogenesis of selenoproteins has been elucidated, and selenium methyltransferases and a respiratory selenate reductase have also been described. This review highlights recent advances in ecology, biochemistry, and molecular biology and provides a prelude to the impact of genomics studies.

Additional publication details

Publication type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Title Arsenic and selenium in microbial metabolism
Series title Annual Review of Microbiology
DOI 10.1146/annurev.micro.60.080805.142053
Volume 60
Year Published 2006
Language English
Publisher Annual Review
Contributing office(s) Toxic Substances Hydrology Program
Description 24 p.
First page 107
Last page 130