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Marine ferromanganese encrustations: Archives of changing oceans

Elements

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and ORCID iD
https://doi.org/10.2113/gselements.13.3.177

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Abstract

Marine iron–manganese oxide coatings occur in many shallow and deep-water areas of the global ocean and can form in three ways: 1) Fe–Mn crusts can precipitate from seawater onto rocks on seamounts; 2) Fe–Mn nodules can form on the sediment surface around a nucleus by diagenetic processes in sediment pore water; 3) encrustations can precipitate from hydrothermal fluids. These oxide coatings have been growing for thousands to tens of millions of years. They represent a vast archive of how oceans have changed, including variations of climate, ocean currents, geological activity, erosion processes on land, and even anthropogenic impact. A growing toolbox of age-dating methods and element and isotopic signatures are being used to exploit these archives.

Additional publication details

Publication type:
Article
Publication Subtype:
Journal Article
Title:
Marine ferromanganese encrustations: Archives of changing oceans
Series title:
Elements
DOI:
10.2113/gselements.13.3.177
Volume:
13
Issue:
3
Year Published:
2017
Language:
English
Publisher:
Mineralogical Society of America
Contributing office(s):
Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center
Description:
6 p.
First page:
177
Last page:
182