The Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) is an optical multispectral push-broom sensor with a focal plane consisting of over 7000 detectors per spectral band. Each of the individual imaging detectors contributes one column of pixels to an image. Any difference in the response between neighboring detectors may result in a visible stripe or band in the imagery. An accurate estimate of each detector’s relative gain is needed to account for any differences between detector responses. This paper describes a procedure for estimating relative gains which uses normally acquired Earth viewing statistics.