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Long-term trends in midwestern milkweed abundances and their relevance to monarch butterfly declines

BioScience

Illinois Natural History Survey
By:
, , and
https://doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biw186

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Abstract

Declines in monarch butterfly populations have prompted investigation into the sensitivity of their milkweed host plants to land-use change. Documented declines in milkweed abundance in croplands have spurred efforts to promote milkweeds in other habitats. Nevertheless, our current understanding of milkweed populations is poor. We used a long-term plant survey from Illinois to evaluate whether trends in milkweed abundance have caused monarch decline and to highlight the habitat-management practices that promote milkweeds. Milkweed abundance in natural areas has not declined precipitously, although when croplands are considered, changes in agricultural weed management have led to a 68% loss of milkweed available for monarchs across the region. Midsuccessional plant communities with few invasive species provide optimal milkweed habitat. The augmentation of natural areas and the management of existing grasslands, such as less frequent mowing and woody- and exotic-species control, may replace some of the milkweed that has been lost from croplands.

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Additional publication details

Publication type:
Article
Publication Subtype:
Journal Article
Title:
Long-term trends in midwestern milkweed abundances and their relevance to monarch butterfly declines
Series title:
BioScience
DOI:
10.1093/biosci/biw186
Volume:
67
Issue:
4
Year Published:
2017
Language:
English
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Contributing office(s):
Fort Collins Science Center
Description:
14 p.
First page:
343
Last page:
356
Country:
United States
State:
Illinois