The hyper-enrichment of V and Zn in black shales of the Late Devonian-Early Mississippian Bakken Formation (USA)

Chemical Geology
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Abstract

Black shales of the Late Devonian to Early Mississippian Bakken Formation are characterized by high concentrations of organic carbon and the hyper-enrichment (> 500 to 1000s of mg/kg) of V and Zn. Deposition of black shales resulted from shallow seafloor depths that promoted rapid development of euxinic conditions. Vanadium hyper-enrichments, which are unknown in modern environments, are likely the result of very high levels of dissolved H2S (~ 10 mM) in bottom waters or sediments. Because modern hyper-enrichments of Zn are documented only in Framvaren Fjord (Norway), it is likely that the biogeochemical trigger responsible for Zn hyper-enrichment in Framvaren Fjord was also present in the Bakken basin. With Framvaren Fjord as an analogue, we propose a causal link between the activity of phototrophic sulfide oxidizing bacteria, related to the development of photic-zone euxinia, and the hyper-enrichment of Zn in black shales of the Bakken Formation.

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Additional publication details

Publication type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Title The hyper-enrichment of V and Zn in black shales of the Late Devonian-Early Mississippian Bakken Formation (USA)
Series title Chemical Geology
DOI 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2017.01.026
Volume 452
Year Published 2017
Language English
Publisher Elsevier
Contributing office(s) Eastern Energy Resources Science Center
Description 10 p.
First page 24
Last page 33
Country Canada, United States
State Manitoba, Montana, North Dakota, Saskatchewan, South Dakota, Wyoming