Determining on-fault earthquake magnitude distributions from integer programming

Computers & Geosciences
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Abstract

Earthquake magnitude distributions among faults within a fault system are determined from regional seismicity and fault slip rates using binary integer programming. A synthetic earthquake catalog (i.e., list of randomly sampled magnitudes) that spans millennia is first formed, assuming that regional seismicity follows a Gutenberg-Richter relation. Each earthquake in the synthetic catalog can occur on any fault and at any location. The objective is to minimize misfits in the target slip rate for each fault, where slip for each earthquake is scaled from its magnitude. The decision vector consists of binary variables indicating which locations are optimal among all possibilities. Uncertainty estimates in fault slip rates provide explicit upper and lower bounding constraints to the problem. An implicit constraint is that an earthquake can only be located on a fault if it is long enough to contain that earthquake. A general mixed-integer programming solver, consisting of a number of different algorithms, is used to determine the optimal decision vector. A case study is presented for the State of California, where a 4 kyr synthetic earthquake catalog is created and faults with slip ≥3 mm/yr are considered, resulting in >10 variables. The optimal magnitude distributions for each of the faults in the system span a rich diversity of shapes, ranging from characteristic to power-law distributions. 

Additional publication details

Publication type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Title Determining on-fault earthquake magnitude distributions from integer programming
Series title Computers & Geosciences
DOI 10.1016/j.cageo.2017.11.018
Volume 111
Year Published 2018
Language English
Publisher Elsevier
Contributing office(s) Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center
Description 15 p.
First page 244
Last page 259