Magnetic indices are simple measures of magnetic activity that occurs, typically, over periods of time of less than a few hours and which is recorded by magnetometers at ground‐based observatories (Mayaud, 1980; Rangarajan, 1989; McPherron, 1995). The variations that indices measure have their origin in the Earth's ionosphere and magnetosphere. Some indices having been designed specifically to quantify idealized physical processes, while others function as more generic measures of magnetic activity. Indices are routinely used across the many subdisciplines in geomagnetism, including direct studies of the physics of the upper atmosphere and space, for induction studies of the Earth's crust and mantle, and for removal of disturbed‐time magnetic data in studies of the Earth's deep interior and core. Here we summarize the most commonly used magnetic indices, using data from a worldwide distribution of observatories, those shown in Figure M31 and whose sponsoring agencies are given in Table M1.
Additional publication details
|Publication type||Book chapter|
|Publication Subtype||Book Chapter|
|Contributing office(s)||Geologic Hazards Science Center|
|Larger Work Type||Book|
|Larger Work Title||Encyclopedia of geomagnetism and paleomagnetism|