Over the past decade, Oklahoma became the most seismically active region of the mid-Continental USA as a result of industry operations. However, seismic network limitations and completeness of earthquake catalogs have restricted the types of analyses that can be performed. By applying multi-station template matching on the 23,889 cataloged earthquakes in Oklahoma and Southern Kansas between late-2008 and 2016, we increased the number of detected earthquakes to 209,409 events. While the improved catalog produced an order of magnitude events than the original catalog, the frequency-magnitude distribution remains similar to the original catalog. We found that the coefficient of variation of interevent times in small spatial bins tends to spatially correlate with the location of M ≥ 4 earthquakes. The improved catalog reveals the pervasiveness of swarm-like patterns in seismicity across the entire study region. The rapid increase in seismicity rate of these swarms in 2013 coincided with a reduction in the calculated p values (power law decay rates) before and after larger events. We also used the catalog to revisit the temporal patterns in the four M ≥ 5 sequences, finding more active foreshock behavior than previously recognized and variations in aftershock behavior. When compared against poroelastic stress models for the Pawnee and Fairview sequences, the catalog shows an improved correlation with stress that accounts for variable-rate injection, supporting the conclusion that injection rate is an important contributor to seismic hazard.
Additional publication details
|Publication Subtype||Journal Article|
|Title||Temporal patterns of induced seismicity in Oklahoma revealed from multi-station template matching|
|Series title||Journal of Seismology|
|Contributing office(s)||Earthquake Science Center|
|Google Analytic Metrics||Metrics page|