Environmental conditions can influence biological characteristics like phenology and body size with important consequences for organismal fitness. Examining these fitness consequences under natural conditions through genetic pedigree reconstruction offers a lens into potential population responses to changing environments. Over three years (2013-2015), we introduced adult alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), anadromous, iteroparous clupeids, into one Massachusetts (USA) lake to complete the first detailed examination of this species’ mating system and assess relationships between body size, reproductive timing, and seasonal reproductive success. We reconstructed pedigrees using 15 microsatellites and genotypes from all possible parents and samples of naturally produced offspring within four months of hatching. Within each of the three study years, spawning adults had multiple mates and spawned multiple times. Larger females that arrived earlier had higher reproductive success. Declining body size and altered migration timing over time, through an influence on reproductive success, can influence population vital rates and productivity.