De facto water reuse: Bioassay suite approach delivers depth and breadth in endocrine active compound detection

Science of the Total Environment
By: , and 

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Abstract

Although endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) have been detected in wastewater and surface waters worldwide using a variety of in vitro effects-based screening tools, e.g. bioassays, few have examined potential attenuation of environmental contaminants by both natural (sorption, degradation, etc) and anthropogenic (water treatment practices) processes. This study used several bioassays and quantitative chemical analyses to assess residence-time weighted samples at six sites along a river in the northeastern United States beginning upstream of a waste water treatment plant (WWTP) outfall and proceeding downstream along the stream reach to a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP). Known steroidal estrogens were quantified and changes in signaling pathway molecular initiating events (activation of estrogen, androgen, glucocorticoid, peroxisome proliferator-activated, pregnane X receptor, and aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling networks) were identified in water extracts. In initial multi-endpoint assays geographic and receptor-specific endocrine activity patterns in transcription factor signatures and nuclear receptor activation were discovered. In subsequent single endpoint receptor-specific bioassays, estrogen (16 of 18 samples; 0.01 to 28 ng estradiol equivalents [E2Eqs]/L) glucocorticoid (3 of 18 samples; 1.8 to 21 ng dexamethasone equivalents [DexEqs]/L), and androgen (2 of 18 samples; 0.95 to 2.1 ng dihydrotestosterone equivalents [DHTEqs]/L) receptor transcriptional activation occurred above respective assay method detection limits (0.04 ng E2Eqs/L, 1.2 ng DexEqs/L, and 0.77 ng DHTEqs/L) in multiple sampling events. Estrogen activity, the most often detected, correlated well with measured concentrations of known steroidal estrogens (R2 = 0.890). Overall, activity indicative of multiple types of endocrine active compounds was highest in wastewater effluent samples, while activity downstream was progressively lower, and negligible in (unfinished) treated water. This multiple bioassay approach, in conjunction with targeted analytical chemistry methods, has gained acceptance among water quality screening programs. Not only was estrogenic and glucocorticoid activity confirmed in the effluent by utilizing multiple methods concurrently, but other activated signaling networks that historically received less attention (i.e. peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor) were also detected.

Additional publication details

Publication type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Title De facto water reuse: Bioassay suite approach delivers depth and breadth in endocrine active compound detection
Series title Science of the Total Environment
DOI 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.134297
Volume 699
Year Published 2020
Language English
Publisher Elsevier
Contributing office(s) Central Midwest Water Science Center, Illinois-Iowa-Missouri Water Science Center, Iowa Water Science Center, WMA - Laboratory & Analytical Services Division
Description 134297, 12 p.
First page 1-12