Anatomy of a caldera collapse: Kīlauea 2018 summit seismicity sequence in high resolution

Geophysical Research Letters
By:  and 



The 2018 Kīlauea eruption and caldera collapse generated intense cycles of seismicity tied to repeated large seismic (Mw ~5) collapse events associated with magma withdrawal from beneath the summit. To gain insight into the underlying dynamics and aid eruption response, we applied waveform-based earthquake detection and double-difference location as the eruption unfolded. Here, we augment these rapid results by grouping events based on patterns of correlation-derived phase polarities across the network. From April 29 to August 6, bracketing the eruption, we used ~2800 events cataloged by the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory to detect and precisely locate 44,000+ earthquakes. Resulting hypocentroids resolve complex, yet coherent structures, concentrated at shallow depths east of Halema‘uma‘u crater, beneath the eventual eastern perimeter of surface collapse. Based on a preponderance of dilatational P-wave first motions and similarities with previously inferred dike structures, we hypothesize that failure was dominated by coupled shear and crack closure.

Study Area

Additional publication details

Publication type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Title Anatomy of a caldera collapse: Kīlauea 2018 summit seismicity sequence in high resolution
Series title Geophysical Research Letters
DOI 10.1029/2019GL085636
Volume 46
Issue 24
Year Published 2020
Language English
Publisher American Geophysical Union
Contributing office(s) Geologic Hazards Science Center
Description 9 p.
First page 14395
Last page 14403
Country United States
State Hawaii
Other Geospatial Kīlauea Volcano
Google Analytic Metrics Metrics page
Additional metadata about this publication, not found in other parts of the page is in this table