Anatomy of a caldera collapse: Kīlauea 2018 summit seismicity sequence in high resolution

Geophysical Research Letters
By:  and 

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Abstract

The 2018 Kīlauea eruption and caldera collapse generated intense cycles of seismicity tied to repeated large seismic (Mw ~5) collapse events associated with magma withdrawal from beneath the summit. To gain insight into the underlying dynamics and aid eruption response, we applied waveform-based earthquake detection and double-difference location as the eruption unfolded. Here, we augment these rapid results by grouping events based on patterns of correlation-derived phase polarities across the network. From April 29 to August 6, bracketing the eruption, we used ~2800 events cataloged by the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory to detect and precisely locate 44,000+ earthquakes. Resulting hypocentroids resolve complex, yet coherent structures, concentrated at shallow depths east of Halema‘uma‘u crater, beneath the eventual eastern perimeter of surface collapse. Based on a preponderance of dilatational P-wave first motions and similarities with previously inferred dike structures, we hypothesize that failure was dominated by coupled shear and crack closure.

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Additional publication details

Publication type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Title Anatomy of a caldera collapse: Kīlauea 2018 summit seismicity sequence in high resolution
Series title Geophysical Research Letters
DOI 10.1029/2019GL085636
Volume 46
Issue 24
Year Published 2020
Language English
Publisher American Geophysical Union
Contributing office(s) Geologic Hazards Science Center
Description 9 p.
First page 14395
Last page 14403
Country United States
State Hawaii
Other Geospatial Kīlauea Volcano
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