Toxic cyanobacteria are a concern worldwide because they can adversely affect humans, animals, and ecosystems. However, neurotoxins produced by freshwater cyanobacteria are understudied relative to microcystin. Thus, the objective of this critical review was to provide a comprehensive examination of the modes of action, production, fate, and occurrence of the freshwater neurotoxins anatoxin-a and saxitoxin as they relate to human, animal, and ecosystem health. Literature on freshwater anatoxin-a and saxitoxin was obtained and reviewed for both laboratory and field studies. Current (2020) research identifies as many as 41 anatoxin-a producing species and 15 saxitoxin-producing species of freshwater cyanobacteria. Field studies indicate that anatoxin-a and saxitoxin have widespread distribution, and examples are given from every continent except Antarctica. Human and animal health concerns can range from acute to chronic. However, few researchers studied chronic or sublethal effects of freshwater exposures to anatoxin-a or saxitoxin. Ecosystemhealth also is a concern, as the effects of toxicity may be far reaching and include consequences throughout the food web. Several
gaps in knowledgewere identified for anatoxin-a and saxitoxin, including triggers of production and release, environmental fate and degradation, primary and secondary exposure routes, diel variation, food web effects, effects of cyanotoxin mixtures, and sublethal health effects on individual organisms and populations. Despite the gaps, this critical review facilitates our current understanding of freshwater neurotoxins and thus can serve to guide future research on anatoxin-a, saxitoxin, and other cyanotoxins.