Magma reservoir failure and the onset of caldera collapse at Kīlauea volcano in 2018

Science
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Abstract

Caldera-forming eruptions are among Earths most hazardous natural phenomena, yet the architecture of subcaldera magma reservoirs and the conditions that trigger collapse are poorly understood. Observations from the formation of a 0.8cubic kilometer basaltic caldera at Klauea Volcano in 2018 included the draining of an active lava lake, which provided a window into pressure decrease in the reservoir. We show that failure began after <4% of magma was withdrawn from a shallow reservoir beneath the volcanos summit, reducing its internal pressure by ~17 megapascals. Several cubic kilometers of magma were stored in the reservoir, and only a fraction was withdrawn before the end of the eruption. Thus, caldera formation may begin after withdrawal of only small amounts of magma and may end before source reservoirs are completely evacuated.

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Additional publication details

Publication type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Title Magma reservoir failure and the onset of caldera collapse at Kīlauea volcano in 2018
Series title Science
DOI 10.1126/science.aaz1822
Volume 366
Issue 6470
Year Published 2019
Language English
Publisher American Association for the Advancement of Science
Contributing office(s) Volcano Science Center
Description 10 p.
Country United States
State Hawaii
Other Geospatial Kīlauea volcano
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