Age of the dacite of Sunset Amphitheater, a voluminous Pleistocene tephra from Mount Rainier (USA), and implications for Cascade glacial stratigraphy

Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research
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Abstract

The dacite of Sunset Amphitheater, Mount Rainier (USA), illustrates the difficulties in establishing accurate ages of Pleistocene tephra eruptions. Nearly uniform whole-rock, glass, and mineral compositions, texture, and phenocryst assemblage establish that certain conspicuous dissected pumice exposures scattered from Mount Rainier to southern Puget Sound are products of the same Pleistocene Plinian eruption. Deposit thicknesses and pumice sizes support an eruption on the order of low Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) 5, atypically explosive for dominantly lava-producing Mount Rainier. Statistically permissible 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages of plagioclase phenocryst separates are 138 ± 20 ka and 101 ± 11 ka (2σ). A previously published result of 206 ± 11 ka is herein shown to result from a sample selection error. Zircon from the pumice yields a U-Th crystallization age of 147 ± 8 ka if the isochron is required to pass through the tephra U-Th isotopic composition. In contrast, pooled (U-Th)/He measurements on the zircon yield an age of 85 ± 6 ka (2σ), which accords with well-behaved 40Ar/39Ar ages of stratigraphically associated lavas high on Mount Rainier, and is the best estimate of the pumice's true eruption age. Inclusions of undegassed melt (glass) in the plagioclase separates are proposed as biasing apparent 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages to old values through coupling of undegassed magmatic excess Ar with radiogenic Ar that accumulated post-eruptively from relatively K-rich glass. U-Th ages record zircon growth prior to eruption, consistent with a possible complex history of advanced solidification followed by remobilization. The ca. 85 ka eruption age confirms that bracketing glacial tills on the flanks of Mount Rainier were products of the Penultimate Glaciation (MIS 6) and Last Glacial Maximum (MIS 2). This eruption age also provides an important time marker for glacial and other sedimentary deposits in southern Puget Sound lowland that, excepting the Vashon Drift (MIS 2), generally lack reliable age determinations.

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    Publication type Article
    Publication Subtype Journal Article
    Title Age of the dacite of Sunset Amphitheater, a voluminous Pleistocene tephra from Mount Rainier (USA), and implications for Cascade glacial stratigraphy
    Series title Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research
    DOI 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2019.03.003
    Volume 376
    Year Published 2019
    Language English
    Publisher Elsevier
    Contributing office(s) Geology, Minerals, Energy, and Geophysics Science Center, Volcano Science Center
    Description 17 p.
    First page 27
    Last page 43
    Country United States
    State Washington
    Other Geospatial Mount Rainier
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