Fate and transport of nitrapyrin in agroecosystems: Occurrence in agricultural soils, subsurface drains, and receiving streams in the Midwestern US
Nitrapyrin is a nitrification inhibitor that is co-applied with nitrogen fertilizer in agroecosystems. There is limited information on the fate of nitrapyrin after it is applied to agricultural soils. Over the course of one year (March 2016 to June 2017), 192 water samples from seven streams across Iowa and Illinois were analyzed for nitrapyrin, its metabolite 6‑chloropicolinic acid (6‑CPA), and three widely used herbicides acetochlor, atrazine, and metolachlor. Additional environmental samples were collected and analyzed in spring 2017: 63 water samples from eight subsurface drains in Illinois, and 33 soil samples from a field in Iowa that received direct application of nitrapyrin. Nitrapyrin was detected in all seven streams (56% detection) with concentrations ranging from less than LOD to 1200 ng/L; 6‑CPA was detected in six of the seven streams (13% detection) with concentrations ranging from less than LOD to 13 ng/L. Nitrapyrin was detected in 10% of the subsurface drain samples with concentrations ranging from less than LOD to 12 ng/L; 6‑CPA was detected in six of the eight subsurface drains and in 33% of drain samples with concentrations ranging from less than LOD to 6 ng/L. Nitrapyrin was detected in 67% of the soil samples collected, and concentrations ranged from less than LOD to 42 ng/g. Generally, all three herbicides were detected more frequently and at higher concentrations than nitrapyrin in the streams, subsurface drains, and soils. The environmental fate of nitrapyrin after application is dominated by sorption to soil and off-field transport via leaching and overland flow.
|Publication Subtype||Journal Article|
|Title||Fate and transport of nitrapyrin in agroecosystems: Occurrence in agricultural soils, subsurface drains, and receiving streams in the Midwestern US|
|Series title||Science of the Total Environment|
|Contributing office(s)||California Water Science Center|
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