Gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus (Schreber, 1775)) populations in portions of the eastern United States have experienced declines whose trajectories differ from those of other mesocarnivore populations. One hypothesis is that gray fox declines may result from interspecific interactions, particularly competition with abundant coyotes (Canis latrans Say, 1823). Alternatively, gray foxes may respond negatively to increased urbanization and reduced forest cover. To evaluate these hypotheses, we used single-species occupancy models of camera trap data to test the effects of habitat covariates, such as the amount of urbanization and forest, on coyote and gray fox occupancy. Additionally, we test the effect of an index based on an N-mixture model of the number of coyotes at each camera trap site on gray fox occupancy. Results indicate that occupancy probabilities of coyote and gray fox relate positively to the amount of forest, but they provided no evidence urban cover impacts gray foxes. Additionally, gray fox occupancy was negatively related to the index of the number of coyotes at each site. Our models support the idea that interactions with coyotes impact gray fox occupancy across the eastern United States. These results illustrate how large-scale studies can relate mechanisms identified within specific landscapes to phenomena observed at larger scales.