Tephroite in California manganese deposits

Economic Geology
By: , and 



Recent studies of manganese deposits and mineral specimens in the Sierran belt of sedimentary rocks as well as in the Klamath Mountains to the north and in the Rand Mountains to the south, have shown the presence of tephroite, the orthosilicate of manganese (Mn2Si04), at numerous localities. Earlier studies of these deposits have shown that the original layered deposits of carbonate and hydrous silicates of manganese have been widely altered by metamorphism to spessartite (Mn3Al2-(SiO.),), rhodonite (MnSi03), and piedmontite (Ca2(Al,Mn"',Fe"')3-Si3Oi2(OH)). Recent work shows that layered manganese oxides also were present in the original sedimentary rocks. It shows also, that tephroite has formed widely in the original assemblage of carbonate, silicate, and oxide of manganesein several localities, a little alleghanyite (2Mn2-S1O4 - Mn(OH,F)2) has been formed. Rhodonite, spessartite, and piedmontite uniformly follow the tephroitein places, bementite and neotocite are present. In one deposit a little pyroxmangite ( (Mn,Fe,Ca)Si03) has been noted and in another, some crystals that are probably pyrophanite (MnTi03), not yet recorded in the United States. By contrast, the restudy of large collections of material from deposits in sedimentary rocks of the Franciscan formation in the Coast Ranges indicates the tephroite is very uncommon; it has been recognized with assurance at only one locality-Alum Rock Park, Santa Clara County. In the Coast Ranges, rhodonite and spessartite, the high manganese garnet, are very uncommon. The assemblages of manganese silicates indicate that the layered deposits of manganese minerals in the Sierra belt have been metamorphosed to a higher degree than those of the Coast Ranges. This review also shows the presence of axinite, the boro-silicate of aluminum, calcium, and manganesein three deposits.

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Publication type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Title Tephroite in California manganese deposits
Series title Economic Geology
DOI 10.2113/GSECONGEO.56.1.39
Volume 56
Issue 1
Year Published 1961
Language English
Publisher Society of Economic Geologists
Description 20 p.
First page 39
Last page 58
Country United States
State California
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