Nest-defense behavior of Mississippi Kites in urban and exurban areas

Human-Wildlife Interactions
By:  and 



Mississippi kites (Ictinia mississippiensis) have become an abundant raptor in many urban and exurban areas throughout the Southern Great Plains of the United States. Unfortunately, human–wildlife conflicts have resulted from this juxtaposition of suitable breeding areas for kites and areas that humans frequent, with some kites responding aggressively to humans near nests. To date, there are no data describing the prevalence of aggressive nest defense in the species, making informed management of human and kite conflicts difficult. We assessed and compared the prevalence of aggressive nest-defense by Mississippi kites in an urban area and an exurban area by simulating nest disturbance with a trial pedestrian. Additionally, we examine the relationships between physical features of the nest tree where aggressive behaviors were and were not recorded. Individual kites breeding in the exurban area responded to the trial pedestrian by taking flight from the nesting area, circling overhead, swooping at the pedestrian, or remaining on the nest. In the urban area, kites displayed a more limited suit of responses and either remained on the nest or swooped at the pedestrian. Additionally, kites breeding in the exurban area appeared to respond to experimental disturbance at a greater distance than did urban breeding kites, but not with more attacks on pedestrians. Physical characteristics of the nest tree did not explain aggressive behaviors, thereby suggesting that aggression in Mississippi kites is caused by factors other than nesting location features.

Study Area

Publication type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Title Nest-defense behavior of Mississippi Kites in urban and exurban areas
Series title Human-Wildlife Interactions
DOI 10.26076/pdrr-cn69
Volume 13
Issue 1
Year Published 2019
Language English
Publisher Berryman Institute
Contributing office(s) Coop Res Unit Atlanta
Description 17, 8 p.
Country United States
State Texas
City Lubbock
Other Geospatial Palo Duro Canyon State Park
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