Sea otters and harlequin ducks have not fully recovered from the oil spill. This project will explore links between oil exposure and the lack of population recovery, with the intent of understanding constraints to recovery of these species and the nearshore environment. In FY 02, sea otter work will include aerial surveys of distribution and abundance and estimates of age-specific survival rates. Harlequin duck field studies will examine the relationship between survival and CYP1A. Captive experiments on harlequin ducks will examine the relationships between oil exposure and CYP1A induction, and metabolic and behavioral consequences of exposure.