Four types of volcanogenic manganese deposits, distinguished on the basis of geologic, geochemical, and geophysical characteristics, appear to result from a combination of volcanic and hydrothermal processes related to hot-spring activity in oceanic environments. We compare these four desposit types, here called the Franciscan, Cuban, Olympic Peninsula, and Cyprus, with respect to host rocks, associated rocks, minerals, deposit shape, dimensions, volume, tonnage, grade, and mineral-deposit density (number of deposits per unit area).
Franciscan-type deposits occur in obducted oceanic ridge and backarc marginal-basin environments, are associated with chert, shale, and graywacke aroun the margins of mafic volcanic centers, and have a median tonnage of 450 t and median grades of 36 weight percent Mn and less than 5.1 weight percent Fe. Cuban-type deposits occur in island-arc environments, are associated with tuff and limestone around domal structures or intrusions inferred to be volcanic centers, and have a median tonnage of 6,400 t and median grades of 39 weight percent Mn and less than 4.4 weight percent Fe. Olympic Peninsula-type deposits occur in obducted oceanic midplate settings, are associated with argillaceous limestone, argillite, and graywacke around mafic volcanic centers (seamounts or islands), and have a median tonnage of 340 t and median grades of 35 weight percent Mn and less than 6.5 weight percent Fe. Cyprus-type deposits occur in the same tectonic environments as Franciscan type but are associated with basalt, marl, chalk, silt, and chert off the ridge-axis position and have a median tonnage of 41,000 t and median grades of 33 weight percent Fe and 8 weight percent Mn. All these deposits are thin ellipsoids, concordant to the host rocks, but Cyprus-and Cuban-type deposits are larger than Franciscan- and Olympic Peninsula-type deposits. Except for Cyprus-type deposits, which are manganiferous iron (umber) deposits composed of hydrated iron and manganese oxides, all volcanogenic manganese deposits contain manganese oxides, silicates, and carbonates.
Mineral-deposit densities, along with grade and tonnage information, are useful for estimating the number, size, andgrades of these deposits in resource assessments.
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Descriptive and grade-tonnage models of volcanogenic manganese deposits in oceanic environments; a modification