The USGS Headwaters Province project in western Montana and northern and central Idaho was designed to provide geoscience data and interpretations to Federal Land Management Agencies and to respond to specific concerns of USDA Forest Service Regions 1 and 4. The project has emphasized development of digital geoscience data, GIS analyses, topical studies, and new geologic interpretations. Studies were designed to more completely map lithologic units and determine controls of deformation, magmatism, and mineralizing processes. Topical studies of geologic basement control on these processes include study of regional metallogenic patterns and their relation to the composition and architecture of underlying, unexposed basement; timing of igneous and hydrothermal systems, to identify regionally important metallogenic magmatism; and the geologic setting of Proterozoic strata, to better understand how their sedimentary basins developed and to define the origin of sediment-hosted mineral deposits. Interrelated products of the project are at complementary scales.